The targeted area is that of management accounting, cost accounting, business accounting also called Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) focused on how a company mobilizes its financial and material resources on the basis of the Total Paid Workforce, considering the preponderant effect of HR on operational risk losses, while preserving its natural and societal environment, to plan, implement and report on the improvement of its financial performance. The concerns in this area are far from those of reporting of alternative performance measures (APMs). This is a debate within financial accounting.

The law requires that non-financial information data must be faithful, relevant, understandable, comparable, verifiable, produced on time and CONNECTED TO FINANCIAL INFORMATION. The company's extra-financial performance statement (EFPS) must integrate an economic model (risks, policies applied, HR strategies and due diligence procedures, political results and performance indicators). The equivalent term is "Non-GAAP Performance Reporting". The area of expertise known to do this is management accounting.

• Subject companies should therefore provide management accounts.

In the United States and in many countries, these management requirements are governed by internal control law. In the United States, these are Sections 404 of SOX (operational risk control), 302 (financial reporting and internal controls), 409 (real-time feedback) and 802 (criminal requirements in the event of falsification of documents).

• Internal control was designed in the United States as having to be linked to the management of human resources. The US Senate vote creating "The Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework (HCAAF)" was passed in 2002, i.e., the same year as SOX Act.

Country laws and guidelines have been updated to better align the requirement with the context of 100% LCR in which all companies (SMEs and large accounts) compete for WCR and investment financing [US: SEC guidance, April 4, 2018; EU, Directive of May 17, 2017; France, ordinance of July 12, 2017; UK and Canada Acts of 2018 and CSA Staff notice 52-306 published on September 6, 2018; etc. including Labor Code provisions for COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE or COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.